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202                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
do. By the treaty of Gastein of 1865, Schleswig was to be
controlled by Prussia, Holstein by Austria, and Lauenburg
was to go to the Prussian crown on the payment of a price.
These arrangements disturbed and displeased many German
powers, and difficulties arose between the two powers them-
.selves. Prussian troops entered Holstein ; the diet voted to
mobilize the federal army; the Prussian representative at the
diet declared that the constitution of the confederation was
dissolved, and Prussia declared that she withdrew from the
confederation, demanding at the same time a plan of reform,
which was in reality a division of Germany. It was plain
that war was inevitable. Prussia had prepared for it, and
the' question was whether Austria should be predominant or
be driven out of the union. The wonderful successes of
Prussia and the peace of Prague, following the convention of
Nikolsburg, all in 1866, separated Austria from the Germanic
body, led to the incorporation of Schleswig-Holstein, Han-
over, electoral Hesse, Nassau and Frankfort in the Prussian
kingdom, and to the formation of the North-German con-,
federacy. The South-German states formed no union.
This new confederation went into operation under its con-
North-German stitution in 1867, and was to a considerable eX-
confederation, dfe ^ ft canying Qut Qf the ideas Qf the Frank-
fort constitution of 1849. The presidency belonged to the 
crown of Prussia, with the right, in this character, of repre-
senting the union in international affairs, of declaring war,
making treaties of peace, of alliance and other conventions,
of accrediting and receiving diplomatic envoys, of nominating
consuls, and of commanding the confederate army and navy.
To this head of\the body belonged also the right to convoke,
open, prorogue and close the federal council, which was to
have an annual meeting, and, whenever a third of the votes
should demand, an extra session. The federal chancellor,
named by the president or presiding power or by his sub-
stitute, presided over the council. To the president per-
tained the promulgation and execution of the laws. The
states of the confederation which did not fulfil their duties